In this talk, I explore the relationship between ethnicity and the changing meaning of Chineseness at the turn of the twenty-first century. I will offer the idea of “Chinese/ethnoscapes” as a framework for thinking about “China” through distinctly ethnic (and ethnicized) worldviews, particularly as they are expressed in two literary examples. First, I will address the ethnically Tibetan, Chinese writer Alai’s award-winning novel Red Poppies. By engaging in a reading of the story that accounts for and takes seriously the Tibetan worldview it suggests, I contend that the novel contains an alternative ending that challenges received ideas about modernity and contemporary Chineseness. Next, I will discuss Paiwan aboriginal, Taiwan writer Dadelavan Ibau’s travelogue-cum-memoir Farewell Eagle: A Paiwan Woman’s West-Tibetan Travels. Through her use of parallel narratives that both remember her past and record her present, I demonstrate how she tactically reconfigures normative coming-of-age narratives in order to accommodate minoritized ethnic knowledge within mainstream Han-ethnic society. Taken collectively, I argue that these literary works demonstrate how centering ethnicity – or taking ethnicity as a method – results in the production of new knowledge about both ethnic and Chinese experiences, knowledge that fundamental reshapes how we can understand the purpose and purview of Chinese Studies today.